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What is LAN (Local Area Network) ?

Every time we discuss so many topics in networking, but sometimes even a small concept in networking is also a big hurdle for many.So, today I am going to share a small but important topic of networking which is “LAN”.So starting with the simple question “What is a LAN ???”We have heard so many definitions of LAN, but what it is actually???LAN is a logical explanation of how big a network can be called as Local.We generally define LAN, man or wan. But in reality, these terms are made for us just to understand that in what way a bigger network can be termed as local.To define LAN in a simple way it can be defined as,Two or more computers or communicating devices that are in the room, or in a floor, in a building, or in a campus if connected are said to be connected to a LAN.There are some points which need to be clear about LAN (Local Area Network):

1. LAN (Local Area Network) is easy to design and troubleshoot

2. The personal computers in the offices are interconnected via LAN

3. Exchange of information and sharing of resources becomes easy because of LAN

4. For example, we can call a complete campus is connected in a LAN because, that whole campus is going to share and exchange their information through LAN

5. Outside of that campus, no one can access that LAN for its personal, commercial or nay kind of use.

6. Different types of topologies such as Bus, Ring, Star, Tree are used in LAN’s.

7. We’ll see some topologies :

a. Bus Topology:

  • In bus topology at any instant only one computer acts as a master and it is allowed to broadcast and the others are supposed to listen
  • Generally, in bus topology, there is a Talk (Broadcast) and Listen part is there
  • The most popular example of bus topology is Ethernet

b. Ring Topology:

  • It is a Broadcast topology
  • In ring topology each bit propagates on its own without waiting for the rest of the packet
  • An example of Ring topology is IEEE 802.5

8. These were some topologies of LAN

9. There are some LAN components too:

  • Gateway
  • File server
  • LAN cables or communication channels
  • Hubs

LAN possesses various characteristics:

1. LAN should be capable of providing high bandwidth (In data communication bits travel on the wire which is nothing but Bandwidth, Bandwidth is Bits Per Second), high speed, high capacity communication.

2. Owner of Premises is owner of LAN, to connect two devices on LAN, we don’t need lease links(leased links means dedicated speed or bandwidth which is provided by the service provider to run big or large organization but in home small office or campus we don’t need these lease links) from service provider.

3. The cost of deploying LAN should be cheap, equipment used should be compact& powerful enough in providing high bandwidth, high speed, high capacity communication.

4. The size of your campus is the size of your LAN, largest LAN is campus-wide LAN.

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